Two men repair the roof of a destroyed house in the village of Memici, east of Tuzla, in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) on 13 April 1996. Some 55 donor nations pledged $1.23 billion in aid for BiH's reconstruction. [AFP] Reconstruction workers in Sarajevo. [Haris Memija] Fireworks are set off in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), on 23 July 2004 to inaugurate the reconstructed 16th century Stari Most, or Old Bridge, that was destroyed by Bosnian Croat artillery in 1993 during the conflict. [AFP] Construction workers in the Muslim area of Sarajevo. [File] Construction on a church. [File] A rebuilt building in Sarajevo. [Haris Memija] Refurbished religious buildings in Sarajevo. [Haris Memija] A pre-burial chapel in the Jewish Cemetery in Sarajevo under goes restoration in October 2000. [File]

10th Anniversary of Dayton Accords: Looking Forward

Dayton Accords: An historic event

The history of Dayton Accords
The US-brokered agreement reached in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995 and formally signed on 14 December of the same year ended the bloodiest conflict in Europe since World War II and re-established peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Documentation of Accords
Negotiated in November 1995 and signed the following month, the Dayton Accords brought an end to three years of brutal interethnic conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It set forth the present political divisions and structure of government of the country, and mandated a wide range of international organisations to monitor, oversee and implement elements of the agreement.
Recollections of key players
Richard Holbrooke, US ambassador to the United Nations, gestures as he delivers the keynote address to the Fifth Anniversary Commemoration of The Dayton Peace Accords 17 November 2000 at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, OH. [AFP]

Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, Bosnia and Herzegovina President Alija Izetbegovic (centre) and Croatian President Franjo Tudjman (right) put their initials to a peace accord between their countries on 21 November 1995 at Wright-Patterson AFB, near Dayton, Ohio. [AFP]
A Who's Who of Dayton implementation
High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) Wolfgang Petritsch holds a press conference on 24 May 2000 at the Justus Lipsius in Brussels, after a meeting of the Bosnian Peace Implementation Council. [AFP]
Maps: Before and after
A map of today's Bosnia and Herzegovina. As agreed under Dayton, the country consists of two entities -- the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and Republika Srpksa. [File]


A 10-year legacy of peacekeeping
A ceremony in Sarajevo on 2 December 2004 marks the historic conclusion of the NATO-led Stabilisation Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the launch of the EU's follow-on EUFOR. [NATO]
NATO and the Defence Reform Commission: partners for progress
In the fall of 2005, legislators in Bosnia and Herzegovina's two entities approved a historic agreement drafted by the Defence Reform Commission. It ends conscription, creates a single Ministry of Defence at the state level and establishes a professional military force that is tailored to the needs of BiH, the needs of regional security and the requirements for integration into the international military community. A key step on BiH's path to Euro-Atlantic integration, the deal also reflects NATO's decade-long commitment to ensuring a stable future for the Bosnian people.

Life and public perceptions 10 years later

Despite peace of Dayton, reality presents difficult challenges

Ten years after the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords, issues remain unresolved for many in Bosnia. The Dayton agreement secured the peace and has set the conditions to enable the country to right itself. The next 10 years will prove pivotal in the future of Bosnia, particularly as it deals with the linked challenges of economic recovery, constitutional reform, and efforts to further integrate into mainstream Europe through memberships in NATO and the European Union.
Ten years after Dayton, divisions remain
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a unique political structure, and with it comes unique problems. Take, for example, the case of Fata Orlovic -- a Bosniak refugee who has been waging a legal battle in the Bosnian Serb entity's court over an Orthodox church in her backyard.
Croats in BiH have differing views on future
Prior to the conflict in BiH, Croats were the smallest of the country's three ethnic populations, and many feel shortchanged by the current political divisions. In Herzegovina, traditionally a hardline bastion, many are calling for the creation of a third entity. Other Croats disagree, arguing instead that BiH should leave separatism behind and seek a multiethnic future.
Bosnian Serbs seek to preserve entity, find way out of economic woes
Republika Srpska, the Bosnian Serb entity, faces a 38 per cent unemployment rate and widespread disatisfaction. Bleak as the situation is, many are resistant to changing the status quo if it means undermining the basic arrangement set out in the Dayton Accords.

The path to stability and progress

The way ahead

On the Highway to Europe
Ten years after Dayton, BiH has embarked on key reforms that are paving the way for future economic growth and higher living standards. However, issues such as unemployment and sluggish investment must be tackled more quickly to ensure the momentum is sustained, writes the international community's Principal Deputy High Representative, Lawrence E. Butler.

BiH and ICTY: "the wanted" list

Wanted war crime indictees
A man looks at US posters in Sarajevo of Bosnian-Serb war time leader Radovan Karadzic (right on poster) and his military commander Ratko Mladic, the UN war crimes tribunal's most wanted fugitives, 20 January 2002, announcing a reward of up to $5m for information leading to their arrest. [AFP]
ICTY co-operation
A Bosnian policeman stands guard at Bosnia and Herzegovina's first war crimes court inauguration on 9 March 2005, in what has been described as a milestone for justice following 1992-1995 conflict in the former Yugoslav republic. The chamber is expected to ease the burden on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia at The Hague by taking some of its caseload, with the first indictments expected to be transferred soon. [AFP]