Romania Country Info


Name: Romania

Area: 237,500 sq. km

Capital: Bucharest

Independence: 1877 from Turkey; proclaimed a republic 30 December 1947

National Holiday: December 1 - Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Population: 22,760,449 ('92) est. 22, 395,848 ('98)

Suffrage: Universal, 18 years of age required

Ethnicity: Romanian (89%); Hungarian (7%); Roma (2%); German (>1%)

Languages: Romanian, minority ethnic languages

Religions: Christianity (87%); Roman Catholic (5%); Protestant; Muslims; Jews


Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 237,500 sq km

land: 230,340 sq km

water: 7,160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total: 2,508 km

border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Geography - note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova and Ukraine

Political System

Political system

The constitution declares Romania to be a parliamentary republic and provides for multiple political parties, a separation of powers between branches of government, a market economy and respect for human rights.

The President

The president of Romania is elected by direct, popular vote for a maximum of two four-year terms. He or she represents the country in matters of foreign affairs and is the commander of the armed forces. According to the 1991 constitution, the president may not belong to any political party.

President: Traian Basescu (since 12 December 2004)


The president appoints a prime minister to head the government; the prime minister is generally the leader of the party with the majority of seats in parliament. The prime minister is responsible for selecting a cabinet to help carry out the operations of government.

Prime minister: Emil Boc (since 28 December 2008)


Romania has a bicameral (two-chamber) parliament called the National Assembly. Its lower house, called the Chamber of Deputies, maintains 343 seats, of which 15 are reserved for ethnic minorities; the upper house, or Senate, has 143 seats. Members of both houses of parliament are elected for four-year terms, according to a modified system of proportional representation.


The Supreme Court is Romania's highest judicial authority. Its members are appointed by the president at the proposal of the Superior Council of Magistrates. In each of Romania's 40 counties and in the special district of Bucharest there is a county court and several lower courts, or courts of first instance. The country also has 15 circuits of appellate courts, in which appeals against sentences passed by local courts are heard; there is a right of appeal from the appellate courts to the Supreme Court. Romania has a Constitutional Court, charged with ensuring a balance of power among the organs of government. The procurator-general is the highest judicial official in Romania, and is responsible to the National Assembly, which appoints him or her for a four-year term. The death penalty was abolished in December 1989 and is forbidden by the 1991 constitution.

Economic Development

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