Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic founded on the principle of the
division of powers into legislature, executive and judiciary. The Constitution is the
supreme law of the country.
The president is the head of
state and has general powers as Commander-in-Chief of the army and Chairman of
the National Security Council. His prerogatives also include conferral of
insignia, naming of towns, villages and geographical places, promulgation in the
State Gazette of laws passed by the National Assembly where he is entitled to
impose a postponement veto thereon, etc. The President is elected directly by
the electorate under a system of majority representation every 5 years for a
maximum of two five-year terms. A vice-president assists the president.
The Executive is a prerogative of the Council of Ministers headed by a
prime minister. The prime minister is elected by the National Assembly for a
four-year term and is bound to propose the Cabinet. The prime minister may
suggest personal reshuffles in the cabinet to the National Assembly. The
determines and appoints regional governors who are bodies of the Executive in
the corresponding administrative units (regions). The is composed of all
ministers and chairs of the committees ranking equal to the ministries. Apart
from being the highest executive body, it also adopts and promulgates certain
acts of delegated legislation - decrees, ordinances, regulations, resolutions
and instructions, and is entitled to initiate the adoption of laws by drafting,
deliberating and forwarding bills to the National Assembly. The National
Assembly can dismiss the cabinet by a vote of no confidence.
The Legislature is concentrated in the National Assembly elected under a
system of proportional representation by universal adult suffrage for a
four-year term. The National Assembly sits in Sofia and is empowered by the
Constitution and the laws with the general competence to pass statutory acts and
resolutions, to adopt declarations, etc.
The Judiciary is comprised of judges, prosecutors and investigating magistrates who are appointed, promoted, demoted, and dismissed by a is concentrated in the 25-member Supreme Judicial Council (SJC). The SJC consists of chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 members, half of whom are elected by the National Assembly and the other half by the bodies of the judiciary for a 5-year term in office. There are three levels of case review and 182 courts of which two Supreme Courts act as the last instance on civil and criminal cases (the Supreme Court of Cassation) and appeals of government decisions (the Supreme Administrative Court).