Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Albania is a parliamentary republic based on the separation and
balancing of legislative, executive and judicial powers. The constitution is
the highest law in the Republic of Albania.
The President of the Republic is the Head of State and represents the unity of the people. He has
general powers as Commander-in-Chief of the army and Chair of the National
Security Council. He is also the head of the High Council of Justice. Among the
president's duties are: addressing the assembly, granting pardons and
citizenships, giving military decorations and titles of honour and appointing
and withdrawing plenipotentiary representatives of the Republic of Albania to
other states and international organisations. The president of the Republic is
elected by secret vote and without debate by the Assembly by a majority of
three-fifths of all its members every 5 years for a maximum of two five-year
The Legislative Power is concentrated in the Albanian Parliament, called
Assembly ( Kuvendi ). The
assembly is elected for four years and consists of 140 deputies. One hundred
deputies are elected directly. Forty deputies are elected from the multi-name
lists of parties or party coalitions according to their respective order.
The Executive branch of government is maintained by the Council of
Ministers, headed by the prime minister. The exercises every state function that
is not given to other organs of state power or to local government. The
president of the republic appoints the prime minister on the proposal of the
party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly.
Apart from being the highest executive body, the council also adopts and
promulgates certain acts of delegated legislation - decrees, ordinances,
regulations, resolutions and instructions, and is entitled to initiate the
adoption of laws by drafting, deliberating and forwarding bills to the Assembly.
The Judiciary Power is on the hand of the High Council of Justice,
Constitutional Court, High Court and other courts as well as the Prosecutors
Office. The president has a great power over the judiciary process in Albania,
heading the HCJ and appointing judges of all courts.
The Constitutional Court guarantees respect for the Constitution and
makes final interpretations of it. The Constitutional Court is subject only to